Welcome!

PHP Authors: Liz McMillan, Carmen Gonzalez, Hovhannes Avoyan, Lori MacVittie, Trevor Parsons

Related Topics: @BigDataExpo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, PHP, Agile Computing, @CloudExpo

@BigDataExpo: Article

How to Spruce Up Your Evolved PHP Application

Three performance improvement steps

Do you have a PHP application running and have to deal with inconveniences like lack of scalability, complexity of debugging, and low performance? That's bad enough! But trust me: you are not alone.

I've been developing Spelix, a system for cave management, for more than 20 years. It originated from a single user DOS application, and has now emerged into a web application with hundreds of users, used nationwide as the official cave directory in Austria.

Just as many software projects: Spelix evolved from MS DOS to PHP-powered Web 2.0 with increased demand for functionality and scalability

Recently I applied for a job at Compuware. For a presentation during my job interview I prepared a case study about how to monitor and improve performance of Spelix with dynaTrace, a tool in Compuware APM's suite. I found more hotspots than expected, and it was much easier than expected to resolve them. I also killed two birds with one stone: Spelix is really performing now and I've got a cool, new job.

Let me share with you my experiences in that process and the best practices I've applied to bring spelix.at to its current stage.

The Challenge of Software Evolution
When we start to design a new application we have the chance to consider data volume, number of users, traffic, all of these thoughts that drive us in selecting the proper architecture. But not many of us are able to follow that procedure, because we have to deal with a grown application. A system has emerged from a tiny set of tools and scripts, more and more functionality has been added over the years. Optimization processes often concentrate on the PHP core app to create performing database access, processing and content rendering, but that's not enough. Unfortunately other tiers are not included in these processes. Too often on the client side, the brush-up ends after designing a new frontend, using existing JavaScript plugins, and not thinking about application performance. But a slow database or browser code can dramatically slow down your application, even with an optimized PHP core.

In Spelix I have identified six major scopes for performance optimization:

  1. Database
  2. Server Side Data Caching
  3. Client Side Data Caching
  4. Network Traffic
  5. Browser / CDN Cache
  6. Server Side Session Handling

To be more digestible, this blog is split into two. This post focuses on the first three performance improvement steps and the next one focuses on the last three.

Step #1: Optimize Database Access
In the early stages of an application, it may not be relevant how your database access is designed. As long as the amount of data is low, a poorly designed query or missing indexes may not really affect overall response times. Therefore, database performance is rarely a topic that comes up in many cases. Once it has become an issue, it may be rather complicated to be handled. It's important to place enough value in your database design right from the start. Here are some of my lessons learned and best practices:

Interaction of Views & Indexes
I don't want to get into too much detail about creating indexes as many other articles have covered this. But it's rather important to understand when an index is not used: be careful when using views in MySQL!

When should you use views? Views are perfect to create complex queries and store them for further use. Views are commonly used to prepare data for presentation, or even for data pre-selection based on user access rights.

When should you avoid views? While a WHERE clause on a simple view may cause an index to be used, this could fail in complex view, even though the WHERE clause is on the primary key for the primary table. Once your query gets too complex, MySQL creates a temporary table for the result of the view, and then applies the query on top of the view, without any indexes to be used. Be alert when your view contains commands like GROUP_BY, ORDER_BY, or UNION. So what? My key advice on this is: when you create a view, define possible WHERE clauses and check the execution plan in the database by using the EXPLAIN command. If your WHERE clause is on a column in a table marked as select type "primary", you are on the save side to use the view. If it's "derived" or "dependent subquery", your query might not use existing indexes. It could be better to execute the query code from the application. If you have executed the SQL statements directly from your business logic, create a data access layer that contains your query code. Consider executing multiple SQL statements and merge the data in your PHP code rather than using complex joins that may spoil your indexes.

Check and Eliminate Redundant Statements
Check if your SQL executions are really necessary! You might have executed your statement in an earlier stage, is there really a requirement to run it again? Would it make sense to keep the data in your current context instead of re-requesting it? The following screenshot shows the database statements executed by the PHP Application.

A very good metric is "Executions per calling Transaction" which makes it easy to highlight statements, which are called several times, maybe too often per transaction. If that number is greater than 1, you might want to dig deeper into your code and try to optimize that. In this example "select * from sys2" reads the settings for the current user, which is not going to change permanently. There is no requirement to run this query redundantly.

What to look for? Find your query invocations in your code and avoid repetitive executions.

Optimizations? Depending on the type of information, consider caching your data in your transaction, session storage or overall server side cache, as described in the next section.

Seeing the actual SQL Statements in the context of the request makes it easier to optimize executions of database queries.

For steps 2 and 3, and for further insight, click here for the full article.

More Stories By Harald Zeitlhofer

Harald Zeitlhofer has 15+ years of experience as an architect and developer of enterprise ERP solutions and web applications with a main focus on efficient and performant business processes, usability and application design. As a Technology Strategist in Dynatrace's Centre of Excellence team he influences the Dynatrace product strategy by working closely with customers and driving their performance management and improvement at the front line. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and meetup groups around the world. Follow him @HZeitlhofer

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
The age of Digital Disruption is evolving into the next era – Digital Cohesion, an age in which applications securely self-assemble and deliver predictive services that continuously adapt to user behavior. Information from devices, sensors and applications around us will drive services seamlessly across mobile and fixed devices/infrastructure. This evolution is happening now in software defined services and secure networking. Four key drivers – Performance, Economics, Interoperability and Trust ...
Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the USA and Europe, we work with a variety of customers from emerging startups to Fortune 1000 companies.
Cybersecurity is a critical component of software development in many industries including medical devices. However, code is not always written to be robust or secure from the unknown or the unexpected. This gap can make medical devices susceptible to cybersecurity attacks ranging from compromised personal health information to life-sustaining treatment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Clark Fortney, Software Engineer at Battelle, will discuss how programming oversight using key methods can incre...
Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deli...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Grape Up will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company specializing in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the U.S. and Europe, Grape Up works with a variety of customers from emergi...
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound e...
@ThingsExpo has been named the Most Influential ‘Smart Cities - IIoT' Account and @BigDataExpo has been named fourteenth by Right Relevance (RR), which provides curated information and intelligence on approximately 50,000 topics. In addition, Right Relevance provides an Insights offering that combines the above Topics and Influencers information with real time conversations to provide actionable intelligence with visualizations to enable decision making. The Insights service is applicable to eve...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/...
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at Dell EMC, introduced a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organization...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
The buzz continues for cloud, data analytics and the Internet of Things (IoT) and their collective impact across all industries. But a new conversation is emerging - how do companies use industry disruption and technology enablers to lead in markets undergoing change, uncertainty and ambiguity? Organizations of all sizes need to evolve and transform, often under massive pressure, as industry lines blur and merge and traditional business models are assaulted and turned upside down. In this new da...